Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 5 pp 4407—4423

Telomere shortening reflecting physical aging is associated with cognitive decline and dementia conversion in mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease

Figure 2. Changes in cognitive performance over 2 years according to telomere length (TL) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) A+ participants. (A) Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). (B) Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD). (C) Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB). (D) Blessed Dementia Scale-Activities of Daily Living (BDS-ADL). Figures show estimated means of clinical outcome measures from baseline to 1- and 2-year follow-up in each TL quartile group. The relationship of baseline TL quartile level (as the explanatory variable) with each clinical outcome measure (as a dependent variable) was analyzed using linear mixed models with a function of TL quartile group, age, time, and group x time interaction. Lower scores suggest worse cognition in MMSE and CERAD, and higher scores suggest worse performance in CDR-SB and BDS-ADL.