Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 6 pp 4836—4865

Nrf2 deficiency aggravates PM2.5-induced cardiomyopathy by enhancing oxidative stress, fibrosis and inflammation via RIPK3-regulated mitochondrial disorder

Figure 4. Nrf2 deficiency enhances cardiac inflammation, RIPK3 expression and mitochondrial disorder in PM2.5-exposed mice. ELISA analysis of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in (A) serum and (B) heart tissue samples. n = 8 in each group. (C) Western blot analysis of p-IκBα and p-NF-κB in heart tissues. n = 6 in each group. (D) RT-qPCR and (E) western blot analysis of RIPK3 in heart tissues from each group of mice. n = 6 in each group. (F) Representative images for IHC staining of p-NF-κB and RIPK3 in the cardiac sections, and the quantified results of p-NF-κB and RIPK3 were showed. Scale bar was 100 μm. n = 6 in each group. (G) ATP production in hearts. n = 8 in each group. (H) Content of mtDNA was calculated through the ratio of Cox1 to cyclophilin A. n = 8 in each group. (I) Evaluation of complex I respiration rate. n = 8 in each group. (J) RT-qPCR analysis of mitochondrial function-associated genes, including Fis1, Drp1, Mid51, Mid49, MFN1, MFN2 and Opa1, in heart tissues. n = 6 in each group. Data were expressed as the mean ± SEM. *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01.