Figure 3. Verapamil acts on the α1 subunit of an L-type calcium channel in C. elegans. (A) Verapamil (100 μM and 400 μM) did not extend the lifespan of egl-19 mutant worms expressing a defective L-type Ca2+ channel α1 subunit. (B) Verapamil (400 μM) decreased the pharyngeal pumping rate, especially at day 3 and 6; however, 100 μM verapamil had no effect on the pumping rate. A two-way ANOVA along with Sidak multiple comparisons test was used to calculate the P-values and error bars represent SEM. (C) Verapamil (400 μM) extended the lifespan even under bacterial dilution conditions (*P < 0.05). The log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test was used to assess the P-value in (A) and (C).