Figure 5. Verapamil extends lifespan through activating autophagy in C. elegans. (A, B) The degree of autophagy induced by verapamil (3 μM and 15 μM) was evaluated by assessing the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio in MRC-5 cells. (C) GFP::LGG-1 levels were evaluated in the seam cells during the L3 stage (****P < 0.0001) to assess the degree of verapamil (100 μM)-induced autophagy. (D) Verapamil (100 μM) significantly activated the expression of autophagy-related genes. Multiple t-tests were used to evaluate the P-values and error bars represent SEM. (E) Verapamil (100 μM) did not extend the lifespan of worms in which bec-1 expression was downregulated. The log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test was used to calculate the P-value.