Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 6 pp 5318—5335

Dexmedetomidine alleviates sleep-restriction-mediated exaggeration of postoperative immunosuppression via splenic TFF2 in aged mice

Figure 1. Postoperative sleep-restriction (SR) increased myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) expansion and decreased splenic CD8+ cells activity via inhibiting splenic trefoil factor 2 (TFF2). (A) The expression of TFF2 in the spleen of SR mice with or without dexmedetomidine (Dex) treatment was analysed by real-time PCR (RT-PCR and western blotting. (B) Spleen weight in each group after 7 days of SR. (C) Flow cytometry analysis of spleen for CD11b+ Gr-1+ MDSCs in SR mice with or without Dex treatment. (D) The enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay of the levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and Granzyme B (GrB) in splenic CD8+ T cells from SR mice with or without Dex treatment. (E) The mRNA and protein expression of TFF2 in the spleen were analysed by RT-PCR and western blotting in SR mice with or without vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). (F) Spleen weight in SR mice with the treatment of recombinant human TFF2 protein (rTFF2) or PBS. (G) Flow cytometry analysis of spleen for CD11b+ Gr-1+ MDSCs in SR mice with the treatment of rTFF2 or PBS. (H) ELISPOT assay of the levels of IFN-γ and GrB in splenic CD8+ T cells from SR mice with the treatment of rTFF2 or PBS. All data represent mean ± SEM, n = 5; #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01.