Figure 2. Subdiaphragmatic vagus nerve mediated the attenuated effects of dexmedetomidine (Dex) on sleep-restriction (SR)-induced decrease in splenic trefoil factor 2 (TFF2) expression, increase in the expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and decrease in CD8+ T cells activity. (A) The expression of TFF2 in the spleen of dexmedetomidine (Dex)-treated SR mice with or without bilateral sub-diaphragmatic vagotomy (SDV) was analysed by western blotting. (B) spleen weight in Dex-treated SR mice with or without SDV. (C) Flow cytometry analysis of spleen for CD11b+ Gr-1+ MDSCs in Dex-treated SR mice with or without SDV. (D) The enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay of the levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and Granzyme B (GrB) in splenic CD8+ T cells from Dex-treated SR mice with or without SDV. All data represent mean ± SEM, n = 5; #P < 0.05, N.S., not significant.