Figure 3. Dexmedetomidine (Dex) treatment improved sleep-restriction (SR)-induced exaggeration of postoperative gut microbiota disturbance. (A) Heat map of differential levels of bacteria between the groups. (B) Chao 1 index. (C) Shannon index. (D) Simpson index. Data represents mean ± SEM, n = 5; #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01. N.S., not significant.