Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 6 pp 5318—5335

Dexmedetomidine alleviates sleep-restriction-mediated exaggeration of postoperative immunosuppression via splenic TFF2 in aged mice

Figure 7. Splenic trefoil factor 2 (TFF2) was essential to attenuate SR-induced reduced protective ability against Escherichia coli (E. coli) pneumonia, increased expression of IL-4 and IL-13 in the lung and M2 polarization of alveolar macrophages (AMs), and decreased phagocytic activity of AMs. (A) Enumeration of colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter of bronchoalveolar lavage analyzed one day after E. coli pneumonia in postoperative SR mice treated with recombinant human TFF2 protein (rTFF2) or PBS. (B) ELISA determination of the concentrations of IL-4 and IL-13 in the lungs of postoperative SR mice treated with rTFF2 or PBS one day after E. coli pneumonia. (C) The phagocytic activity of alveolar macrophages from postoperative SR mice treated with rTFF2 or PBS. (D) Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) analysis of the mRNA expression of Arg1, YM and iNOS in alveolar macrophages from postoperative SR mice treated with rTFF2 or PBS. All data represent mean ± SEM, n = 5; #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01.