Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 6 pp 5318—5335

Dexmedetomidine alleviates sleep-restriction-mediated exaggeration of postoperative immunosuppression via splenic TFF2 in aged mice

Figure 8. Dexmedetomidine improved postoperative sleep-restriction (SR)-induced reduction of protective ability against Escherichia coli (E. coli) pneumonia. (A) Enumeration of CFU per milliliter of bronchoalveolar lavage analyzed one day after E. coli pneumonia in postoperative SR mice with or without the treatment of dexmedetomidine (Dex). (B) ELISA determination of the concentrations of IL-4 and IL-13 in the lungs of postoperative SR mice with or without the treatment of Dex. (C) RT-PCR analysis of the mRNA expression of Arg1, YM and iNOS in alveolar macrophages from postoperative SR mice with or without the treatment of Dex. (D) The phagocytic activity of alveolar macrophages from postoperative SR mice with or without the treatment of Dex. (E) Enumeration of CFU per milliliter of bronchoalveolar lavage analyzed one day after E. coli pneumonia Dex-treated SR mice with or without sub-diaphragmatic vagotomy (SDV). (F) ELISA determination of the concentrations of IL-4 and IL-13 in the lungs of Dex-treated SR mice with or without SDV. (G) ELISA determination of the concentrations of IL-4 and IL-13 in the lungs of sham-operated mice and pseudo-germ-free mouse received fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). (H) ELISA determination of the concentrations of IL-4 and IL-13 in the lungs of pseudo-germ-free mouse received FMT with feces of SR mice, Dex-treated SR mice or Dex-treated SR mice with SDV. All data represent mean ± SEM, n = 5; #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01.