Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 6 pp 5352—5361

Metformin inhibits high glucose-induced smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration

Figure 2. Metformin inhibited high glucose–induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration via HMGB1-autophagy related pathway. (A) Metformin inhibited high glucose–induced VSMC migration in a two dimensional scratch assay. Significant inhibition of cell migration was found when metformin was added in the high-glucose condition; in addition, metformin resulted in decreased cell migration in the normal glucose condition. (B) Metformin inhibited high glucose–induced VSMC migration in a three dimensional transwell assay. Significant inhibition of cell migration was found when metformin was added in the high-glucose condition; in addition, metformin resulted in decreased cell migration in the normal glucose condition. (C) The HMGB1-autophagy related pathway was involved in the effects of metformin on high glucose–induced cell migration. Metformin resulted in decreased HMGB1 and LC3II levels and increased the p62 level in the high-glucose condition. In addition, metformin resulted in decreased HMGB1 and p62 levels and increased LC3II level in the normal glucose condition. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 and ***p < 0.001 for between-group comparison.