Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 6 pp 5384—5398

N-Propargyl caffeate amide (PACA) prevents cardiac fibrosis in experimental myocardial infarction by promoting pro-resolving macrophage polarization

Figure 2. PACA altered the kinetics of macrophage polarization in hearts. (A) Immunostaining of macrophage biomarkers ED1 and ED2 in heart tissue. The cardiac tissues were probed with antibodies against ED1 and ED2 and detected with ImmunoCruz mouse ABC Staining System. The images were captured under a microscope. Original magnification 400X Scale bar, 50 μm. ED1+/ED2+ cells was counted from six different images. Data were expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 5). *, p<0.05, **, p<0.01 (ISO+PACA vs ISO). (B) Immunostaining of Arg1 and iNOS in macrophages. Following 3-day treatment with PACA, the cardiac tissues were probed with antibodies against CD68, Arg1 and iNOS. DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei. The tissue sections were imaged under a fluorescence microscope. Scale bar, 20 μm.