Figure 7. Potential mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activities of PACA. PACA is oxidized to o-quinone, forms covalent conjugate with PPAR-γ and consequently activates PPAR-γ pathway. PPAR-γ activation promotes pro-resolving macrophage polarization, suppresses the expression of TGF-β1, PDGF-a, and maintains the expression of MMPs. Ultimately, PACA attenuates the activation of cardiac fibroblast and the progression of cardiac fibrosis.