Figure 1. DDP chemoresistance in NPC cells is mediated through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. (A) Heatmap of differentially expressed genes in 5-8F and 5-8F/DDP cell lines by RNA sequencing. (B) Differentially enriched Wnt/β-catenin pathway-related signatures between 5-8F and 5-8F/DDP cell lines, determined by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). (C) Protein expression of Wnt/β-catenin in the CNE2 and CNE2/DDP, 5-8F and 5-8F/DDP cell lines, as determined by western blot. (D, E) mRNA expression of the Wnt/β-catenin downstream genes (AXIN2, SOX9, CD44 and CCND2) in CNE2 and CNE2/DDP cell lines (D) and 5-8F and 5-8F/DDP cell lines (E) as determined by qPCR. All of the experiments were performed at least three times. Data presented are the mean ± SD; **P < 0.01 compared with using the Student t-test.