Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 6 pp 5469—5478

Intranasal delivery of 9-cis retinoic acid reduces beta-amyloid deposition via inhibiting astrocyte-mediated inflammation

Figure 5. 9-cis RA reduced amyloid-associated neuroinflammation. (AC) The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the cortex of APP/PS1 were examined by ELISA. Data represent the mean ± SEM (n=6). *, P < 0.05.