Figure 6. Schematic diagram of hAmylin-induced apoptosis. hAmylin irreversibly aggregates and forms pores on the surface of the cell membrane, thus increasing ROS generation. On the other hand, changes in cellular osmotic pressure activate TRPV4 channels, leading to extracellular calcium ion influx. Increased [Ca2+]i and ROS levels reduce the mtΔΨ and eventually induce apoptosis.