Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 9 pp 7927—7944

Small airway remodeling in diabetic and smoking chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

Figure 4F–H. High glucose levels and CS exposure activated the TGF-β signaling pathway. Western blot results of Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 in BEAS-2B (F) and HSAEpiC (E) cells. qRT-PCR results of Smad2, Smad3 and Smad4 in BEAS-2B (H) and HSAEpiC (G) cells. * p<0.05, ** p<0.01 compared with the control group.