Figure 6A–E. High glucose levels and CS exposure induced EMT through the TGF-β signaling pathway. (A) Hematoxylin and eosin staining of bronchioles from control, COPD, COPD diabetic and SB431542-injected COPD diabetic rats. (B) Immunohistochemical results and positive ratios of Zo1 and vimentin in control, COPD, COPD diabetic and SB431542-injected COPD diabetic rats. (C–F) AECs were treated with 25 mM glucose and 1% CSE for 24 hours, and SB431542 was added 30 minutes before further treatment. Western blots of Zo1 and vimentin in BEAS-2B (C) and HSAEpiC (D) cells. qRT-PCR analyses of Zo1 and vimentin in BEAS-2B (E) cells.