Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 9 pp 7963—7984

Metabolic switching is impaired by aging and facilitated by ketosis independent of glycogen

Figure 8. Keto-adaptation does not rely on glycogen depletion. (A) Glycogen levels in the liver while fasted or fed in young and aged rats on the SD or KD. SD-fed aged rats were not able to maintain liver glycogen when fasted, whereas KD-fed aged rats were. (B) Muscle glycogen while fasted or fed in young and aged rats on the SD or KD did not change across age, diet or feeding status groups. (C) Young SD-fed rats had significantly higher liver glycogen than all aged rats and KD-fed young rats during the first 3 days of the diet, but levels were similar in all groups on day 7 and beyond. (D) The GKI did not correlate with the amount of glycogen in the liver during keto-adaptation for young animals on the SD or KD. (E) The GKI did not correlate with the amount of glycogen in the liver during keto-adaptation for aged animals on the KD, but did significantly negatively correlate during this time period in SD-fed rats. Data are represented as group mean ± 1 SEM. In panels A-B: TRF standard diet n = 14 young, n = 15 aged; TRF ketogenic diet n = 14 young, n = 15 aged. For panels C-E: n = 20 per group for all groups.