Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 9 pp 8622—8639

Lemon essential oil ameliorates age-associated cognitive dysfunction via modulating hippocampal synaptic density and inhibiting acetylcholinesterase

Figure 1. LEO decreases neuronal loss in APP/PS1 mice. (A) Experimental design. We treated mice with daily inhalation over a period of 30 days. After treatment, MWM was performed for 6 days, followed by Novel object recognition test for 3 days. All mice were then euthanized and pathological evaluations were performed. (B) Inhalation of LEO was performed using an individual ventilated cage (IVC) in the experiment. (C) H&E staining of the hippocampal sections from aged WT and APP/PS1 mice. (D) shows Western blotting data of NeuN protein expression levels in the hippocampus. (E) Bar graph represents NeuN expression levels in the hippocampus. (F) The neuronal mark protein NeuN was used to assess neuronal density in the CA1 region and cortex in WT and APP/PS1 mice. (G) Bar graph displays the number of NeuN-positive cells in cortex. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001; one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparisons test. Scale bar = 50 μm. LEO: lemon essential oil.