Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 9 pp 8622—8639

Lemon essential oil ameliorates age-associated cognitive dysfunction via modulating hippocampal synaptic density and inhibiting acetylcholinesterase

Figure 2. LEO improves learning and memory ability in APP/PS1 mice after neurodegeneration. Escape latency and escape velocity in the MWM test were recorded and statistically analyzed. (A) represents latency during the acquisition phase. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed that APP/PS1 mice learned significantly slower than WT mice (F = 2.93, P = 0.0084). In APP/PS1 mice, the data revealed that the difference between LEO-treated mice and untreated APP/PS1 mice was significant (F = 2.96, P = 0.042). (B) represents percent time spent by mice in target quadrant and average of other quadrant and average of other quadrants during the probe trial. (C) represents swim speed during the acquisition phase. (D) represents video tracks of probe trial. (E) represents swim distance during the acquisition phase. (F) represents the number of crossing over the original platform location. (G) Schematic diagram of the Novel object recognition. (H) Recognition indices in mice were analyzed by one-way ANOVA (P < 0.01). Values are presented as means ± SD. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001. LEO: Lemon essential oil.