Figure 2. RS2 reduced intestinal permeability and inflammation in blood, colon, and liver in aged mice on high-fat diet. (A) Representative images of PAS-AB staining in colon tissues from three groups (400x magnification, scale bar =50 μm) and the quantification of PAS-AB positive cells per crypt for every mouse in each group. (B) Immunofluorescence staining of MUC2 (green) with nuclear counterstaining (blue) in colon tissue from the three groups (200x magnification, scale bar=100 μm) and quantification analysis of mean fluorescence intensity for every mouse in each group. (C) Effects of diet on colonic MUC2 mRNA expression assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. (D) Comparison of serum LPS levels assessed by ELISA among the three groups. (E) Comparison of fecal LPS levels assessed by ELISA among the three groups. (F) Effects of diets on colonic and hepatic inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. Multiple comparisons of colonic TNF-α levels (p=0.22); multiple comparisons of hepatic TNF-α levels (p=0.07). n=5 or 6/group. Data are expressed as mean+SE. Differences were compared by one-way ANOVA among the three groups with Tukey’s multiple comparison posttests between two groups. * p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001. MUC2, mucin2; CON, control group; HF, high-fat diet group; HFRS, high-fat diet+20%RS2 group.