Figure 3. High-fat diet and RS2 supplemented with high-fat diet altered the microbial diversity and community at the phylum level in aged mice. (A–C) Alteration of α-diversity induced by HF diet and HFRS diet. (A) Sobs index and (B) Chao1 index represent richness of community, (C) Shannon index represents diversity of community. (D) Pie chart of phyla alteration caused by HF diet and HFRS diet. (E) Relative abundance of Proteobacteria among the three groups. n=4 to 6/group. Data are expressed as mean+SE. Differences were compared by one-way ANOVA among the three groups with Tukey’s multiple comparison posttests between the two groups. * p<0.05, ** p<0.01. CON, control group; HF, high-fat diet group; HFRS, high-fat diet+20%RS2 group.