Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 10 pp 9365—9379

Association of cerebrospinal fluid neurogranin levels with cognition and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease

Figure 1. Scatterplots of CSF Ng levels by clinical diagnosis and biological status. (A) Mean CSF Ng levels were higher in AD subjects compared with sMCI subjects (P = 0.011) or CN controls (P < 0.001). Mean CSF Ng levels were higher in pMCI subjects compared with sMCI subjects (P = 0.028) or CN controls (P < 0.001). Mean CSF Ng levels were higher in sMCI subjects compared with CN controls (P = 0.042). (B) When comparing by Aβ status, Ng values were differentially increased in Aβ+ CN (P = 0.032) and Aβ+ MCI individuals (P < 0.001), whereas in the dementia stage, Ng levels were elevated regardless of Aβ status (P = 0.243). (C) Mean CSF Ng levels were higher in those with A+T+ (Mean [SD]: 608.7 [345.0] pg/mL, n = 230) compared with those with A-T- (Mean [SD]: 260.5 [175.6] pg/mL; n = 99) (P < 0.001). Mann-Whitney U test/Kruskal-Wallis test was used for all group comparisons. * p<0.05, *** p<0.001. Abbreviations: CN, cognitively normal; MCI, mild cognitive impairment; sMCI, stable MCI; pMCI, progressive MCI, MCI progressing to dementia due to AD; AD, Alzheimer’s disease; CSF: cerebrospinal fluid; Ng, neurogranin; Aβ, amyloid-β; A-, amyloid-β negative (CSF Aβ>192 pg/mL); A+, amyloid-β positive (CSF Aβ<192 pg/mL); T-, tau negative (CSF p-tau<23 pg/mL); T+, tau positive (CSF p-tau>23 pg/mL).