Figure 1. GNE-477 potently inhibits human RCC cell progression in vitro. The primary human RCC cells (“RCC1/RCC2/RCC3”), HK-2 renal epithelial cells (“HK-2”) or the primary human renal epithelial cells (“Epi”) were treated with applied concentration of GNE-477 (1-100 nM) or the vehicle control (“Veh”, 0.1% DMSO), cells were further cultured for the designated time periods (24-96h); Cell viability (A, G), colony formation (B) and proliferation (C, H) as well as cell cycle progression (D), migration (E, I) and invasion (F) were tested by the assays mentioned in the text. Bars stand for mean ± standard deviation (S.D.). For each assay, n=5. ** p < 0.01 vs. “Veh” cells. Experiments in this figure were repeated five times, and similar results obtained. Scale bar= 100 μm (C, E, F).