Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 10 pp 9515—9533

Clioquinol improves motor and non-motor deficits in MPTP-induced monkey model of Parkinson’s disease through AKT/mTOR pathway

Figure 2. CQ improved clinical phenotypes after long-term of MPTP intoxication. (A) Evaluation of motor function for each group by Papa scale during the treatment period. Motor deficits mitigated by both LD and CQ treatment displayed with decreased Papa scale. (B) The comparison of Papa scores in each group before and after treatment. Papa scores were significantly declined by both LD and CQ treatment. (CJ) The comparison of spirit evaluation, including grooming score, checking behavior score, interactivity after stimulation score, spontaneous interactivity score, defense reaction score, hypersomnia score, facial expression score, and vocalizing score in each group, before and after treatment, respectively. (K) Representative images showed constipation after MPTP intoxication, and which was relieved by both LD and CQ treatment. Data expressed as the mean ± SD. *P<0.05, **P<0.01, indicate significant difference.