Figure 5. Schematic figure representing DEX-mediated anti-inflammatory response in LPS-treated macrophages. DEX inhibits the production of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 via suppressing HIF1α expression and the upregulation of glycolysis in LPS-treated macrophages. However, enhancing glycolysis by GM-CSF could reverse the anti-inflammatory effect of DEX on LPS-treated macrophages. Moreover, the restraint of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 production by DEX was abolished by decreasing HIF1α levels genetically with HIF1α knockdown.