Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 13 pp 12850—12868

Glycosylation end products mediate damage and apoptosis of periodontal ligament stem cells induced by the JNK-mitochondrial pathway

Figure 4. After incubating PDLSCs in four different media for 72 hours, the amount of endogenous ROS (A, B), glutaraldehyde (C) and total mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (D) produced by PDLSCs induced by AGEs and/or TNF-α was analyzed by flow cytometry (A). A1: Control Group; A2: Cells were treated with 10ng/mL TNF-α; A3: Cells were treated with 100μg/mL AGEs-BSA; A4: Cells were treated with 100μg/mL AGEs-BSA and 10ng/mL TNF-α. Data are presented as the mean ±standard deviation (SD) (n=3). (ns P>0.05, * P<0.05, ** P<0.01, *** P<0.001).