Effectiveness of the 2VO+EMS model in improving CBP and cognitive function as determined by SEM, MRI-ASL and the MWM test. SEM observations showed that the pericytes (A) in the brain cortex on the EMS side exhibited increased activity and function than those (B) on the non-EMS side. Bar = 10 μm. (C) MRI-ASL images showing a higher CBF on the EMS side than on the non-EMS side (the white arrow indicates the EMS). (D) Column chart showing the CBF in the 2VO sham, 2VO and 2VO+EMS groups. (E–H) The MWM test results indicated that the improvement in cognitive function observed in the 2VO+EMS group was better than that found in the 2VO group (the 2VO sham group was used as the control). The error bars represent the ±SDs. SEM: scanning electron microscopy; ASL: arterial spin labeling; MWM: Morris water maze; ASL: arterial spin labeling; EMS: encephalo-myo-synangiosis.