Figure 11. Summary of the defensive effects of PHC against rI/R-induced acute lung injury, and the potential pathogenesis. PHC greatly ameliorated rI/R-induced acute lung injury by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation. These effects of PHC were linked to its stimulation of the ARE/Nrf2/AMPK pathways and its inhibition of NF-κB and NLRP3 signaling. However, the mitigation of NF-κB and NLRP3 signaling by PHC appeared to be Nrf2-independent and Nrf2-dependent, respectively.