Figure 1. The beneficial effects of regular physical activity. Regular physical activity exerts its beneficial effects through activation of telomerase, preservation of telomere length and improved mitochondrial biogenesis and function. On the cellular level these effects lead to the reduction of apoptosis, cellular senescence and oxidative stress, lowering the subsequent multi-system chronic inflammation. In summary, regular physical activity is a means to preserve genomic integrity and tissue function and reduce the onset of age-related chronic diseases.