Research Paper Advance Articles

Spermine and spermidine modulate T-cell function in older adults with and without cognitive decline ex vivo

Figure 1. Cytokine data (IL2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-9) of pre-stimulated T-cell (24 hours) treated with and without Spermine (in pg/ml) for 48 hours in cognitive decline patients and controls. Cytokines – IL2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-9– in pg/ml – were measured by Legend-plex (Biolegend) in culture supernatants after 48 hours of Spermine treatment. T-cells were pre-stimulated by CD3/CD28 antibodies for 24 hours before polyamine usage. Spermine was added in the following concentrations: 5μM, 10μM, 100μM, 1000μM, 2000μM. Unstimulated cells (UST) were measured as control. The data sets were not Gaussian-distributed and therefore transformed by R studio orderNorm using the bestNormalize package and analyzed. Raw data (individual data, median + interquantile ranges) (A, B, I, J, E, F, M, N) and transformed data are given (mean with lower and upper confidence limits, C, D, K, L, G, H, O, P). ncontrol = 12; nCD-patient = 20 * p<0.05; ** p<0.01; *** p<0.001.