Research Paper Advance Articles

Spermine and spermidine modulate T-cell function in older adults with and without cognitive decline ex vivo

Figure 10. Activation marker CD25, CD69 of CD4+ T helper-cells treated with Spermidine for cognitive decline patients and controls. T-cells were isolated from controls (A, C, E, G, I, K) and patients with cognitive decline (B, D, F, H, J, L). CD3/CD28 stimulated T-cells were incubated for 24 hours with 5, 10, 100, 1000, 2000 μM Spermidine. Percentage (%) (AD, GJ) and the expression (measured by median fluorescence intensity; MFI) (E, F, K, L) of activation marker – CD25 (AF); CD69 (GL). Markers were analysed on CD4+ T-cells. The data sets were not Gaussian-distributed and therefore transformed by R studio orderNorm using the bestNormalize package and analyzed. Raw data (individual data, median + interquantile ranges) and transformed data (mean with lower and upper confidence limits) are depicted for %. ncontrol = 12; nCD-patient = 20; * p<0.05; ** p<0.01; *** p<0.001.