Figure 11. Autophagy of CD4+ T helper-cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells treated with Spermidine for cognitive decline patients and controls. T-cells were isolated from controls (A, C, E, G, I, K) and patients with cognitive decline (B, D, F, H, J, L). CD3/CD28 stimulated T-cells were incubated for 24 hours with 5, 10, 100, 1000, 2000 μM Spermidine. Percentage (%) (A–D, G–J) and the expression (measured by median fluorescence intensity; MFI) (E, F, K, L) of autophagy was measured by LC3. Autophagy was analysed on CD4+ T-cells (A–F) and CD8+ T-cells (G–L). The data sets were not Gaussian-distributed and therefore transformed by R studio orderNorm using the bestNormalize package and analyzed. Raw data (individual data, median + interquantile ranges) and transformed data (mean with lower and upper confidence limits) are depicted for %. ncontrol = 12; nCD-patient = 20; * p<0.05; ** p<0.01; *** p<0.001.