Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 20 pp 20095—20110

Depressive and anxiety disorders worsen the prognosis of glioblastoma

Figure 2. Correlation between the questionnaire results and GBM outcomes. (A) Scatter plots demonstrating the correlations of PHQ-9 (left) and GAD-7 (right) scores with the overall survival (OS) times in GBM patients. Pearson correlation analysis was used. The correlation coefficient, 95% confidence interval and P value are provided in the upper right corner of each plot. (B) Kaplan-Meier analyses of OS in patients with high or low PHQ-9 (left side) or GAD-7 (right side) scores. The OS times differed significantly between patients with higher (red line, n = 38) and lower (blue line, n = 36) PHQ-9 scores; P = 0.0172. The OS times also differed significantly between patients with higher (red line, n = 36) and lower (blue line, n = 39) GAD-7 scores; P = 0.002. A log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test was used. (C) Histogram displaying the differences in PHQ-9 (left side, n male = 40, n female = 44, P = 0.0378) and GAD-7 (right side, n male = 40, n female = 44, P = 0.5742) results between male and female GBM patients. Student’s t-test was used for statistical analysis. *, P < 0.05. (D) Histogram displaying the differences in OS between male GBM patients with high or low PHQ-9 or GAD-7 scores. The OS times differed significantly between male patients with high (red, n = 20) and low (blue, n = 16) PHQ-9 scores (left side); P = 0.0003. The OS times also differed significantly between male patients with high (red, n = 21) and low (blue, n = 15) GAD-7 scores (right side); P = 0.0006. Student’s t-test was used for statistical analysis; ***, P < 0.001. (E) Histogram displaying the differences in OS between female GBM patients with high or low PHQ-9 or GAD-7 scores. The OS times did not differ significantly between female patients with high (red, n = 18) and low (blue, n = 21) PHQ-9 scores (left side); P = 0.9966. The OS times differed significantly between female patients with high (red, n = 15) and low (blue, n = 24) GAD-7 scores (right side); P = 0.0054. Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis; **, P < 0.01.