Figure 2. Effects of chronic and repeated short-term sleep restriction (CRSR) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and hippocampal inflammation 24 hours after LPS treatment. Western blot analysis of the expression of the tight junction proteins occludin (A), zona occluden-1 (ZO-1; B) and claudin (C) in the brain. (D) Evans blue dye extravasation test. LPS-induced decreases in hippocampal tight junction protein levels and increase in Evans blue dye extravasation into the brain were exaggerated by CRSR. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of hippocampal gene expression of TNF-α (E), IL-6 (F), IL-17A (G), and IFN-γ (H). The LPS-induced increase in hippocampal expression of these genes was exaggerated by CRSR. Data represent means ± SEM, n = 6; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.0001.