Figure 3. Effects of chronic and repeated short-term sleep restriction (CRSR) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced transformation of microglia to M1 phenotype 24 hours after LPS treatment. (A) Western blotting analysis of hippocampal ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1) expression in each group. The LPS-induced increase in hippocampal Iba1 expression was exaggerated by CRSR. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of hippocampal expression of the microglial M1 markers CD16 (B), CD11b (C), CD32 (D), and iNOS (E) and the M2 markers Arg-1 (F), TGF-β (G), CD206, (H) and YM1 (I). LPS-induced increases in microglial M1 markers and decreases in M2 markers in the hippocampus were exaggerated by CRSR. Data represent means ± SEM, n = 6; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.0001.