Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 15 pp 15446—15461

The spleen mediates chronic sleep restriction-mediated enhancement of LPS-induced neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, and anxiety-like behavior

Figure 4. The spleen mediates the enhancing effects of chronic and repeated short-term sleep restriction (CRSR) on LPS-induced cognitive deficits, anxiety-like behavior, and systemic inflammation. (A) Experimental schematic. Splenectomy or sham-splenectomy was performed 14 days prior to the first cycle of sleep restriction. In the Y maze test (YMT), the number of entries (B) and time spent in the novel arm (C) were assessed in each group 1 day prior to LPS treatment as a baseline and 2 days after LPS treatment. Splenectomy blocked CRSR-mediated exacerbation of LPS-induced decreases in the number of entries into the novel arm and time spent in the novel arm. In the OFT, time spent in the center (D) and freezing time (E) were also assessed in each group 1 day prior to LPS treatment as a baseline and 2 days after LPS treatment. Splenectomy blocked CRSR-mediated exacerbation of LPS-induced decreases in time spent in the center and freezing time. Plasma was collected 24 hours after LPS treatment for enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detection of TNF-α (F), IL-6 (G), IL-17A (H), and IFN-γ (I). Splenectomy blocked CRSR-mediated exacerbation of LPS-induced increases in plasma TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17A, and IFN-γ levels. Data represent means ± SEM, n = 6; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01. N.S., not significant.