Figure 6. Microglial polarization alters the inflammatory activity of astrocytes. Pro-inflammatory factors and Aβ induce microglia to polarize toward the M1 phenotype and to produce IL-1β and TNF-α, thus stimulating pro-inflammatory activity in astrocytes. Anti-inflammatory factors (IL-4/IL-13) induce microglia to polarize toward the M2 phenotype and to produce IL-4 and IL-10, thus stimulating anti-inflammatory activity in astrocytes. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory factors reduce pro-inflammatory activity in microglia and astrocytes.