Figure 3. Effects of the tested compounds on cell viability, caspase 1 activity, polyQ aggregation, and neurite outgrowth in ATXN3/Q75-GFP SH-SY5Y cells. (E) Representative microscopic images of differentiated ATXN3/Q75-GFP-expressing SH-SY5Y cells, untreated or treated with NC009-1, AM404, VB-037 or LM-031, with nuclei counterstained with Hoechst 33342 (blue). Left panel: Aggregates marked with white arrowheads. Right panel: Neurite length, process and branch of TUBB3-stained ATXN3/Q75-GFP cells, with images segmented with multi-colored mask to assign each outgrowth to a cell body for neurite outgrowth quantification. P values: comparisons between untreated (induced) and uninduced cells (###: P < 0.001), or between compound treated and untreated cells (*: P < 0.05, **: P < 0.01 and ***: P < 0.001). (one-way ANOVA with a post hoc Tukey test).