Review Volume 12, Issue 15 pp 15797—15817

Perioperative neurocognitive dysfunction: thinking from the gut?

Figure 2. The pathogenesis of perioperative neurocognitive dysfunction. Postoperative delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction are two repensentive symptoms of perioperative neurocognitive dysfunction, and that multiple factors and pathways are probably involved in the pathogenesis of PND. α7 nAChR: α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; AChE: acetylcholin esterase; BDNF: brain-derived neurotrophic factor; CHAT: choline acetylase; DFO: deferoxamine; GR: glucocorticoid receptor; Hcy: homocysteine; MAP: mean arterial pressure; MV: mechanical ventilation; PACU: postanaesthesia care unit; PND: perioperative neurocognitive dysfunction; POCD: postoperative cognitive dysfunction; POD: postoperative delirium; ROS: reactive oxygen species.