Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 20 pp 20350—20365

Blood-based biomarkers in hypothalamic-pituitary axes for the risk of dementia or cognitive decline: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Figure 3. Higher concentrations of blood biomarkers in HPG axis and the risk of dementia or cognitive decline. *One of the studies did not report case and sample size. Abbreviations: bio, bioavailable; DHT, dihydrotestosterone; E2, estradiol; FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone; LH, luteinizing hormone; SHBG, sex hormone-binding globulin; T, testosterone.