Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 20 pp 20350—20365

Blood-based biomarkers in hypothalamic-pituitary axes for the risk of dementia or cognitive decline: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Figure 6. Map of hormones in HP axes, their hormone-binding proteins and the risk of dementia and cognitive decline. Font colours indicate the effect on risk of dementia or cognitive decline of higher concentrations of blood biomarkers. Subgroups are shown below biomarker names. The results of FSH, LH, and IGF-II were derived from males only. Abbreviations: ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone; bio, bioavailable; CBG, corticosteroid-binding globulin; CRH, corticotropin-releasing hormone; DHEAS, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate; DHT, dihydrotestosterone; FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone; GH, growth hormone; GHRH, growth hormone-releasing hormone; GnRH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone; IGF, insulin-like growth factor; IGFBP, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein; LH, luteinizing hormone; rT3, reverse triiodothyronine; SHBG, sex hormone-binding globulin; T3, triiodothyronine; T4, thyroxine; TBG, thyroxine-binding globulin; TRH, thyrotropin-releasing hormone; TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone.