Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 22 pp 22564—22581

Upregulated GDF-15 expression facilitates pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma progression through orphan receptor GFRAL

Figure 1. GDF-15 is aberrantly elevated in pancreatic cancer tissues and blood, and correlates with disease progression. (A) Detection of GDF-15 protein levels by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 7 normal pancreatic tissues and 21 pancreatic cancer tissues. (B) GDF-15 protein expression was determined via Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) in 20 normal blood and 34 pancreatic cancer blood. (C) Kaplan-Meier curves for overall survival time of patients with pancreatic cancer after surgical resection. The high and low GDF-15 protein expression was based on the average value of GDF-15 protein expression in pancreatic cancer patients’ blood samples. ***P<0.0001.