Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 22 pp 22564—22581

Upregulated GDF-15 expression facilitates pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma progression through orphan receptor GFRAL

Figure 3. GDF-15 promotes subcutaneous pancreatic cancer cell growth in nude mice. Lv-RNAi-NC and Lv-RNAi-GDF-15 AsPC-1 cells were subcutaneously injected into nude mice. (A) Impact of GDF-15 knockdown on AsPC-1 cells growth following xenotransplantation into nude mice by subcutaneous injection. Cancer cells growth were monitored using the IVIS® Spectrum system (Perkin Elmer, USA). The intensity of red fluorescent signal means the size of tumor cells after proliferation. (B) The tumor growth and mean tumor weights were detected after 30 days of inoculation.