Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 22 pp 22564—22581

Upregulated GDF-15 expression facilitates pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma progression through orphan receptor GFRAL

Figure 4. GFRAL is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer tissues and pancreatic cancer cell lines, and correlates with disease progression. (A) Detection of GFRAL protein levels by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 117 pancreatic cancer tissues (clinical stages I, II, III, and IV) and 13 normal pancreatic tissues. (B) WB assay to detect GFRAL protein in different types of pancreatic cancer cell lines and normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cell line. (C) GFRAL expression correlates with overall survival time of patients with pancreatic cancer after surgical resection. (D) A positive relationship between GDF-15 and GFRAL protein was demonstrated in 13 pairs of pancreatic cancer blood and tissues based on Spearman’s correlation.