Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 21 pp 21253—21272

Regulation of the regenerative activity of dental pulp stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) of children by TGF-β1 is associated with ALK5/Smad2, TAK1, p38 and MEK/ERK signaling

Figure 10. TGF-β1 binds to TGF-β receptors of SHED to stimulate downstream signaling pathways such as ALK5/Smad2, TAK1, p38 and MEK/ERK to regulate growth, differentiation etc, can be potentially applied for treatment of aging-related diseases including dermal aging, osteoporosis, and pulp necrosis etc.