Figure 10. Western blotting analysis for selected differentially expressed proteins. MAM fractions from ZDF, PSD, and PDZ rats were analyzed by western blotting using antibodies against mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (Mapk1) (A), apolipoprotein E (Apoe) (B), pyruvate kinase (Pkm) (C), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gapdh) (D), and ALG2, alpha-1,3/1,6-mannosyltransferase (Alg2) (E). VDAC1 was used to ensure equal protein loading and transfer. The levels of Pkm, Mapk1, Apoe, Gapdh, and Alg2 were normalized relative to VDAC1 levels. *p <0.05, ***p <0.001, ****p <0.0001 PSD vs. ZDF; #p <0.05, ##p <0.01, ####p <0.0001 (mean ± SEM, n=3 per group).