Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 20 pp 20753—20777

Substance P blocks ovariectomy-induced bone loss by modulating inflammation and potentiating stem cell function


OVX impairs the vasculature in trabecular bone. (A) Images of immunofluorescence staining for CD31 (red) in distal femoral metaphysis from sham-operation and OVX rat. GP: growth plate. Scale bar: 200 μm. (BD) The concentrations of PDGF-BB VEGF and TGF-β in serum were determined by ELISA. p values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant (* p <0.05, ** p <0.01, *** p <0.001). n = 12/group.