Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 20 pp 20753—20777

Substance P blocks ovariectomy-induced bone loss by modulating inflammation and potentiating stem cell function

Figure 4. SP ameliorates bone loss, preserving vasculature and angiogenic factors. (A) Experimental schedule for OVX and SP treatment. (B) Representative femoral μCT images. (C, D) Quantitative analyses of the trabecular bone fraction of femora from rats. (E) H&E, Masson’s Trichrome and TRAP staining of distal femoral metaphysis regions. Scale bar: 500 μm. (F, G) The level of osteocalcin and TGF-β in the blood was elucidated by ELISA. (H) Images of immunofluorescence staining for CD31 (red) in distal femoral metaphysis from rat after sham-operation, OVX and OVX with SP treatment. GP: growth plate. Scale bar: 200 μm. (I, J) The concentration of VEGF and PDGF-BB in the blood was analyzed by ELISA. BV: trabecular bone volume. TV: tissue volume. BS: bone surface. p values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant (* p <0.05, ** p <0.01, *** p <0.001. n = 12/group