Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 20 pp 20753—20777

Substance P blocks ovariectomy-induced bone loss by modulating inflammation and potentiating stem cell function


SP enhances the vascular potential of BMSC from OVX. (A) BMSC and EPC from Sham/OVX rat was primed with SP and then, subjected to vascular tube formation assay. EPC was seeded with or without BMSC on the Matrigel and tube formation ability was observed after 5 hours (B) Representative images of tube formation assay on Matrigel in EPC co-cultured with or without BMSC. Scale bar: 200 μm. (CE) The total tube length, total branching points and total loops were quantified relatively. (FG) The concentrations of VEGF and TGF-β in conditioned medium of BMSCs were measured by ELISA and adjusted to per 1 × 104 cells. p values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant (* p <0.05, ** p <0.01, *** p <0.001). The data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation (SD) of three independent experiments. n = 5/ experimental setting.